Железобетон

Железобетон

Железобетон — композитный строительный материал, представляющий собой залитую бетоном стальную арматуру. Запатентован в 1867 году Жозефом Монье как материал для изготовления кадок для растений.

Французский садовник Монье выращивал в теплицах пальмы, затем пересаживал саженцы в глиняные горшки и отправлял для продажи в Англию. Горшки в дороге бились, пальмы погибали. Садовник терпел большие убытки. Однажды раздосадованный Монье решил слепить кадку для пальмы из цемента. Он взял две деревянные бочки и поместил их одна в другую, а промежуток между стенками залил цементом, получив бетонную тонкостенную бочку. Для большей прочности он заключил ее в каркас из железных стержней, а потом для красоты покрыл каркас тонким слоем жидкого цемента. После затвердения новая бочка оказалась на редкость прочной, и Монье был выдан патент на изобретение. Это случилось в 1861 году, который принято считать годом изобретения железобетона как универсального несгораемого строительного материала.

В XX веке железобетон является наиболее распостраненным материалом в строительстве.

Термин "железобетон" абстрактен и употребляется обычно в выражении "теория железобетона". Если речь идет о конкретном объект будет правильней говорить "железобетонная конструкция", "ж/б конструкция", "железобетонный элемент" (сказать "балка из железобетона" можно, но профи будут на вас коситься).

К положительным качествам железобетонных конструкций относятся:

  • невысокая цена железобетонные конструкции значительно дешевле стальных
  • пожаростойкость в сравнении со сталью и деревом
  • технологичность несложно при бетонировании получать любую форму конструкции
  • химическая и биологическая стойкость не подвержен коррозии, старению, гниению

К недостаткам железобетонных конструкций относятся:

  • невысокая прочность при большой массе прочность бетона в среднем в 10 раз меньше прочности стали. в больших конструкциях железобетон "несет" большей своей массы, чем полезной нагрузки
  • Выделяют сборный железобетон (ж/б конструкции изготавливаются в заводских условиях, затем монтируются в заводских условиях) и монолитный железобетон (бетонирование выполняется непосредственно на строительной площадке)

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